PRÁTICA DA LÍNGUA INGLESA I
Read the following text about a series of violent attacks that have been taking place in London. Then, answer the question.
What to know about acid burns
By Daniella Emanuel, CNN
A series of acid attacks in London left five men injured. One victim is considered to have life-changing facial injuries.
Acid attacks are on the rise in the British capital, with police reporting an increase in yearly filed incidents to 454 in 2016 from 261 in 2015. They have been connected to robberies and gang violence.
Globally, these types of attacks are not new. Colombia has a reported average of 100 incidents a year -- with one of the highest rates per capita -- and India had about 300 recorded attacks in 2016. The United Kingdom is a rarity in that men make up most of the victims. In many other countries, women are disproportionately affected.
Health impacts of acid
When a chemical like sulfuric or hydraulic acid hits the skin, it causes coagulation necrosis, an accidental cell death that leads to tissue ulceration. It's that ulceration that has such damaging effects, said Dr. Julie Caffrey, director of the Johns Hopkins Adult Burn Center at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. The burn will continue until the acid is removed.
Depending on the severity of the injury, an acid burn can cause lifelong deformities, including blindness if it gets into the eyes, she said. Some patients may have permanent damage to their facial features and scarring that affects the ability to create expressions.
"We can do lots of surgeries to improve appearance, but we can never get back to normal," Caffrey said. "It will never be what it was before the area was injured."
Many patients suffer from chronic pain, she said, specifically nerve pain that has to be managed by specialists and oftentimes requires multiple medications. Psychological side effects may also manifest, such as acute stress disorder, which can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder, she said.
"The patients feel fearful leaving the house that they might undergo attack, but they also undergo a lot of problems with accepting their appearance and dealing with what they look like now," Caffrey said.
Patients may become recluses out of fear of being stared at or made fun of, she said.
Read the following fragment and consider the word OF: ... said Dr. Julie Caffrey, director of the Johns Hopkins Adult Burn Center at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center.
In the context it was used, this word conveys the following idea:
coming from a particular background.
being part of something.
used to show the position of something.
belonging to somebody.